There are two finishing wood types and cabinet box construction woods. The finishing wood types are separated into two categories, natural or engineering.
Natural wood grain will show the wave of the wood grain, and sometimes you might even see tree knobs. As for engineering wood, you do not see any tree knobs, and the wood grain will be very even with a pattern. They are usually quarter-cut wood and are made by joining pieces together.
As for cabinet construction woods, choices include particle board, MDF (Medium-Density Fiberboard), and plywood. For strength and durability, plywood is the best, followed by MDF and then particle board. Plywood consists of sheets of wood glued and compressed to form one piece of wood. MDF is created by many different types of small pieces of wood compressed together. Particle board is made from leftover wood (wood chips, saw dust, and shavings) from sawmills that has been compressed.